== Bess and Dee Volume 2, Chapter 10==
Bess and Dee (2012) define leadership as:
“Leadership can be defined as an influence process, as the facilitation of the achievement of desirable organizational outcomes, as the fulfillment of group members’ psychological needs, as an inherent characteristic of a person, and an exchange process (p. 827).”
Barrow’s dimentions of Leadership Theories
Created by Jeffrey Barrow in 1977, Barrow was a leadership researcher who parsimoniously identified the elements in each of the concepts of the social systems model. Barrow created a vertical dimension in his conceptualization of leadership in main main theoretical styles:
1-Idiographic leadership-seeks to identify the personal qualities of leaders. This involves physical and attitudinal traits of leadership. (2012, p. 835-836).
Identified within the idiographic leadership umbrella, a trait theory approach the history of social organizational change is really the history of particular individuals-especially at the national-state level. Many studies of this theory have attempted to find the personality traits and motivational factors that interact to determine the job success of managers (2012, p. 838-839). Some traits associated with Trait Theory are: physical characteristics, social background and socioeconomic status, intellectual skills and ability, personality, and task related characteristics.
2-Nomethtic leadership-looks to the cultural and situational conditions that induce persons in leadership positions to behave in predictable ways such as: behaviors, interaction, and effectiveness (e.g. deterministic leadership theories) (2012, p. 836).
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Two major concepts of the idiographic orientation are styles of leadership known as transformation and transactional leadership. The transformational leadership style focuses on “raises our level of awareness, our level of consciousness about the importance and value of designated outcomes, and ways of reaching them” (1978, p. 20). Transactional leadership involves recognizing what subordinates want from their work environments and attempt to ensure they receive it, if performance warrants it. (2012, p. 840).
Small Group Theory
This theory is prominent in the Barrow framework as a nomothetic style of leadership. The small group theory, which is grounded in systems theory suggest that leaders who adopt this style provide both structural guidance and operational flexibility. (2012, p. 845).
3-Behavioral leadership-when a person does something to influence a group or organization to which they belong. (2012, p. 837).
Charismatic Leadership theory- involves as an interaction between leaders and followers that results in making the followers’ self-esteem contingent on the vision and mission, strong internalization of the leaders’ values and goals by the followers; and strong personal or moral commitment to these values and goals. This also develops a willingness on the parts of followers to transcend their self-interests for the sake of the collective (2012, p. 843).
4-Interactional leadership-This involves leadership from the interaction of person and environment; the focus is on behavior (2012, p. 837).
Situational Leadership Theory
This theory takes into account the characteristics of its subordinates as a group. The leader thus interacts with them in a different manner.
5- Effectiveness-this approach involves a product of groups of individuals interacting among themselves and with the situation to produce some desired change to sustain the status quo (2012, p. 837).
Created by two researchers, Martin Evans and Robert House, the Path-Goal theory is concerned with the ways that organizational members cognitively view their own goals and the unit’s goals and with the behaviors of the leader that take into account the subordinates perspectives (Wofford & Liska, 1993). There are two main assumptions that follows this theory:
1- The leader projecting future benefits and guiding the organization towards that goal; and
2- The motivational abilities of the leader to convince subordinates that their own needs will be fulfilled by giving service to the organization. In other words, subordinates must believe that their own effective behavior is the determinant of leader support, and they must believe that support is forthcoming (2012, p. 854).
There are four types of leader behaviors in the path-goal theory: supportive leadership, participative leadership, instrumental leadership, and achievement-oriented leadership. This style of leadership can be measured thus improved by reflective observation.
Leader-Match Theory- Created by Fred Fiedler, this approach comprises a more limited set of contingencies and a more exact prescription of what kind of leadership behavior is call for under different conditions. (2012, p. 859)